PEMANFAATAN CITRA PENGINDERAN JAUH MULTI-TEMPORAL UNTUK DETEKSI URBAN HEAT ISLAND (UHI) TERHADAP PERUBAHAN PENGGUNAAN LAHAN DI KABUPATEN BULELENG

A Sediyo Adi Nugraha, Dewa Made Atmaja

Abstract


Fenomena Urban Heat Island (UHI) sering dipengaruhi oleh kepadatan penduduk dan perubahan penggunaan lahan. Perubahan tesebut memiliki hubungan dengan peningkatan suhu permukaan (Land Surface Temperature/LST) sebagai awal terjadinya UHI. Deteksi perubahan penggunaan lahan dan suhu permukaan dilakukan dari tahun 2000, 2010, dan 2018 pada daerah Kabupaten Buleleng dan berfokus pada Kecamatan Buleleng karena memiliki perubahan lahan terbangun lebih cepat dibandingkan kecamatan lain. Tujuannya untuk mengetahuii bagaimana fenomena UHI itu terjadi akibat dari perubahan penggunaan lahan. Selain itu, seberapa besar peningkatan suhu permukaan selama 18 tahun khususnya di Kecamatan Buleleng dengan mengetahui kondisi ditribusi dan intensitas UHI. Metode yang digunakan dalam deteksi UHI menggunakan citra penginderaan jauh multi-temporal yaitu citra Landsat 7 ETM+ dan citra Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS (The Operational Land Imager and the Thermal Infrared Scanner) sebagai data primer. Pengolahan data akan berfokus pada ekstraksi suhu permukaan dengan metode Split-Windows Algorithm Sobrino (SWA-S) untuk Landsat 8 dan metode Brightness Temperature Emissivity Correction untuk Landsat 7, kemudian Maximum Likelihood sebagai metode penggunaan lahan. Hasil pengolahan menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan metode yang berbeda memberikan dampak terhadap fenomena UHI. Perbedaan suhu selama 18 tahun sebesar sebesar ±5°C hal itu dipengaruhi dari kondisi awan dan bayangan. Perubahan penggunaan lahan dari tahun 2000 hingga 2018 terdapat peningkatan lahan terbangun di Kecamatan Buleleng dan peningkatan suhu permukan sebesar 2°-7°C dari lahan terbangun. Fenomena UHI untuk distribusi dan instensitas UHI terjadi di daerah pusat perkotaan dan kenaikan intensitas UHI sebesar 1.75°C. kesimpulannya bahwa perubahan lahan terbangun memberikan dampak kenaikan suhu permukaan dan menyebabkan fenomena UHI.

Keywords


UHI; Citra Landsat; Suhu Permukaan; Distribusi UHI; Intensitas UHI

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24895/MIG.2020.22-2.1046

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