PEMETAAN TERUMBU KARANG DAN NILAI EKONOMI BERDASARKAN TRAVEL COST METHOD

Irmadi Nahib, Yatin Suwarno, Syahrul Arief

Abstract


Studi ini bertujuan mengetahui potensi dan penyebaran terumbu karang serta menganalisis manfaat ekonomi dari wisata terumbu karang. Pemetaan dilakukan dengan analisis citra Aster tahun 2007 dan survei lapangan tahun 2011. Analisis ekonomi dilakukan dengan pendekatan biaya perjalanan (travel cost method), yaitu mengkaji biaya yang dikeluarkan oleh setiap individu untuk menikmati kawasan rekreasi. Hasil perhitungan dengan pendekatan Sistem Informasi Geografis (SIG) diketahui luas ekosistem terumbu karang di Taman Nasional Karimunjawa sebesar 6.189,69 ha, yang terdiri dari terumbu karang : 3.707,303 ha (59,89%), lamun 405,686 ha (6,55%) dan pasir 2.076,697 ha (33,55%). Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa sebagian ekosistem terumbu karang masih merupakan karang. Berdasarkan jumlah biaya akomodasi yang dikeluarkan selama berada di TN Karimunjawa, rata-rata biaya akomodasi yang dikeluarkan oleh wisatawan adalah sebesar Rp. 880.000/orang/kunjungan. Sedangkan berdasarkan rata-rata total biaya perjalanan adalah Rp.3.184.000/orang/kunjungan (wisatawan domestik) dan Rp. 29.720.000 /orang/kunjungan (wisatawan asing). Dari hasil perhitungan konsumen suprlus yang dinikmati oleh wisatawan adalah sebesar Rp. 550.250 dan nilai ekonomi Taman Nasional Karimunjawa sebesar Rp. 4.981.963.500.

Kata Kunci : Pemetaan, Nilai Ekonomi, Terumbu Karang, Wisata

ABSTRACT

This study aims to determine the potential and distribution of coral reefs as well as analyzing the economic benefits of coral reef trip. The coral reef mapping was carried out by analyzing an Aster satellite image year 2007 and a field survey conducted in 2011. An economic valuation using a travel costs method was performed to examine the costs incurred by each individual to enjoy the recreation area. The results of calculations using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) found the area of coral reef ecosystems in the Karimunjawa National Park (NP) accounted for 6189.69 hectares, consisted of coral reefs at 3707.303 ha (59.89%), seagrass at 405.686 ha (6.55% ) and sand at 2076.697 ha (33.55%). This number suggests that most of the ecosystem is dominated by coral reef. Meanwhile, based on the calculation of additional costs incurred while visiting the Karimunjawa NP, average accommodation costs incurred was IDR 880.000/person/visit. Moreover, the total cost average of each trip was valued for IDR 3.184 million/person/visit for domestic visitors, and IDR 29.720.000/person/traffic for overseas visitors. Besides that, the calculation of consumer surplus enjoyed by tourists was accounted for IDR 550,250. Altogether, the economic value of Karimunjawa NP was accounted for IDR 4.981.963.500.

Keywords: Mapping, Economic Value, Coral Reefs, Tourism


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