PEMETAAN KARAKTERISTIK PENURUNAN MUKA TANAH BERDASARKAN METODE GEODETIK SERTA DAMPAKNYA TERHADAP PERLUASAN BANJIR DI CEKUNGAN BANDUNG

Irwan Gumilar, H.Z. Abidin, L.M. Hutasoit, D.M. Hakim, H Andreas, T.P Sidiq, M Gamal

Abstract


Peningkatan aktifitas pembangunan di perkotaan dan urbanisasi di Cekungan Bandung telah meningkatkan pengambilan airtanah dari akuifer. Hal ini menyebabkan terjadinya fenomena penurunan muka tanah di beberapa lokasi di Cekungan Bandung. Berdasarkan data GPS (Global Positioning System) dan analisis dari data InSAR (Interferometry Syntetic Aperture Radar), dihasilkan nilai kecepatan penurunan muka tanah di semua area studi bervariasi secara spasial dari 2 sampai 20 cm/tahun. Dampak tidak langsung dari penurunan muka tanah di Cekungan Bandung adalah memperluas area banjir. Banjir sering terjadi di area dimana kecepatan penurunan muka tanahnya besar. Sebagai contoh, banjir parah 2010 terjadi di daerah-daerah yang kecepatan penurunan muka tanahnya antara 7-10 cm/tahun. Banjir besar dapat membawa dampak negatif seperti kerugian ekonomi di sektor industri, pertanian, infrastruktur, rumah tangga, dan fasilitas umum di daerah terdampak. Analisis spasial yang dikombinasikan dengan peta penurunan muka tanah, dapat digunakan untuk mengestimasi luas area banjir total pada tahun 2010 mencapai 6.420 ha. Area banjir yang hanya disebabkan oleh penurunan muka tanah seluas 1.388 ha atau 21% dari total area banjir. Kerugian ekonomi akibat banjir yang disebabkan oleh penurunan muka tanah ini mencapai 203 Milyar rupiah.

Kata Kunci: GPS, InSAR, Penurunan Muka Tanah, Banjir, Kerugian Ekonomi

 

ABSTRACT

Increase in urban development activities and urbanization in Bandung Basin have increased the groundwater extraction from the aquifers, which has then led to land subsidence phenomena in several locations inside the basin. Based on GPS (Global Positioning System) survey method and analysis of InSAR (Interferometry Syntetic Aperture Radar) data, it was found that the estimated subsidence rates at all observed areas varied spatially from 2 to 20 cm/year. The indirect impact of land subsidence in Bandung Basin is wider expansion of flooding. Interestingly, floodings frequently occur at the area where the subsidence rate is high. For example, the 2010 heavy flooding covered over the areas where the subsidence rates are about 7-10 cm/year. This proves that the land subsidence can aggravate the flooding in Bandung Basin.The heavy flooding can bring negative impacts such as economic losses on industry, agriculture, infrastructure, household, and public facilities sectors in the affected area. Using spatial analysis in combination with the subsidence map, it was estimated that the flooding covers over the total area of about 6420 Ha. Flooded area caused by subsidence was at 1388 hectares, or 21% from the total flooded area. The economic losses due to the flooding in Bandung Basin could reach about 203

billion rupiah.

Keywords: GPS, InSAR, Subsidence, Flooding, Economic Losses


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