FOREST FRAGMENTATION ANALYSIS AND IT'S RELATIONSHIP WITH FOREST DEGRADATION

Mulyanto Darmawan

Abstract


Borneo tropical rain forest (BTRF), for many years, has been subject for timber extraction, agriculture, and plantation expansion. Although it has experienced land conversion, complete pictures of the effect of forest degradation of the remaining forest are poorly understood. As its condition is necessary for evaluating total forest condition, therefore understanding of the relationship between fragmentation and degradation are important. Initially, forest fragmentation analysis was applied to understand geometrical shape of forest after long period of forest clearance. Finally the fragmentation analysis was applied to calculate proportion of forest (Pof) and forest connectivity to non-forest (Cot). Forest area was extracted from land cover classification using Landsat data and six categories of fragmentation metric (interior, perforated, edge, transitional, patch and undetermined) were developed in this study. Result showed that if the remaining forest was characterized with interior forest pattern, the less forest degradation had threatened, however, if the remaining forest had characteristic as patch, transition and perforated patterns, moderate to high level of forest degradation had been threatening.

Kata Kunci: Analisis Fragmentasi Hutan, Degradasi Hutan, Hutan Hujan Tropis

ABSTRACT

Hutan Hujan Tropis di wilayah Borneo (Kalimantan) sudah lama menjadi target sumber kayu, ataupun ekspansi lahan pertanian dan perkebunan. Meski telah berulang kali mengalami pengalihan dan perubahan hutan, akan tetapi gambaran yang lengkap tentang degradasi hutan alami yang tinggal masih sulit dipahami. Memahami kondisi degradasi hutan tersebut sangat diperlukan dalam upaya evaluasi kondisi hutan Kalimantan sepenuhnya, maka diperlukan pemahaman hubungan antara fragmentasi hutan dan tingkat degradasi hutan. Dalam study ini, pertama kali analisa fragmentasi dilakukan untuk mengetahui bentukan geometris hutan tropis yang ada yang merupakan hasil proses konversi hutan telah berlangsung lama. Selanjutnya, analisa Framentasi dilakukan untuk menghitung proporsi hutan (Pof) dan koneksi hutan dengan penggunaan lahan lain yang bukan hutan (Cof). Data hutan bersumber dari hasil klasifikasi tersedia (supervised classification) land cover atas citra satelit Landsat. Enam kategori metric fragmentasi digunakan dalam studi ini yaitu : interior, perforated, edge, transitional, patch dan undetermined. Hasil studi menunjukkan hubungan antara karateristik geometris hutan dengan kondisi hutan degradasi, yaitu apabila hutan yang ada mempunyai bentukan geometris interior maka kecil kemungkinan degradasi hutan terjadi. Namun, apabila hutan yang ada ditandai dengan bentukan geometris patch, transition dan perporated, maka dapat disimpulkan telah terjadi proses degradasi intensif terhadap hutan tersebut mulai dari kategori sedang hingga tinggi.

Keywords : Forest Fragmentation Analysis, Forest Degradation, Tropical Rain ForestĀ 


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