MENGUKUR URBAN HEAT ISLAND MENGGUNAKAN PENGINDERAAN JAUH, KASUS DI KOTA YOGYAKARTA

Nurul Ihsan Fawzi

Abstract


Peningkatan suhu di kawasan perkotaan adalah salah satu dampak dari urbanisasi. Fenomena Urban Heat Island (UHI) merupakan salah satu akibat yang dihasilkan akibat peningkatan suhu tersebut. Diperlukan upaya untuk menilai perubahan suhu apakah dapat berbahaya bagi manusia atau tidak. Melalui pengukuran UHI, pengaruh pembangunan kota terhadap peningkatan suhu dapat diukur. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memberikan panduan ilmiah tentang perolehan intensitas dan distribusi UHI menggunakan teknik penginderaan jauh. Studi kasus yang dilakukan berada di Kota Yogyakarta, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Citra penginderaan jauh yang digunakan adalah citra Landsat 8 perekaman tanggal 24 Juni 2013, path/row 120/65. Metode ekstraksi suhu permukaan menggunakan inversi persamaan Planck dengan koreksi emisivitas dan atmosfer menggunakan radiative transfer equation. Hasil pengolahan didapatkan intensitas UHI sebesar ±2,5oC pada Kota Yogyakarta dan intensitas UHI sebesar ±3,23oC pada area yang diperluas dengan buffer 1 km dari batas Kota Yogyakarta. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa pemilihan area penelitian untuk analisis UHI menjadi penting karena mempengaruhi nilai intensitas UHI dan distribusi UHI. Ditemukan kawasan Malioboro dan sekitarnya berpotensi kuat terjadi UHI, sehingga perlu upaya mitigasi UHI pada kawasan tersebut. Pengukuran UHI menggunakan penginderaan jauh dipengaruhi oleh hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan sistem penginderaan jauh, seperti validasi dan akurasi hasil estimasi, pengaruh atmosfer, dan perbedaan waktu intensitas puncak UHI. Metode perolehan UHI dalam penelitian ini dapat menjadi panduan ilmiah yang digunakan untuk dasar evaluasi pembangunan perkotaan untuk lebih baik. 


Keywords


urban heat island, penginderaan jauh, pembangunan kota

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24895/MIG.2017.19-2.603

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