KAJIAN DETEKSI DEGRADASI HUTAN DENGAN DATA MODIS DAN LANDSAT DALAM MEMAHAMI SKENARIO PENERAPAN REDD

Suharto Widjojo, Mulyanto Darmawan, Aris Poniman, Nita Maulia, Ari Sutanto

Abstract


Dalam studi ini data multi temporal satelit Landsat resolusi spasial 30 meter periode
tahun 2003, 2006 dan 2009 dan data MODIS tahun 2003 dan 2008 digunakan untuk deteksi degradasi hutan wilayah Kalimantan, khususnya Kalimantan Timur. Deteksi level degradasi hutan menggunakan metode deteksi perubahan (change detection) dan analisa fragmentasi (fragmentation analysis). Kategori fragmentasi ditentukan berdasar pengelompokkan hutan dengan klas edge, perforated dan patch, sementara hutan alami dikelompokkan atas dalam hutan core pada buffer 250 sampai 500 acre. Selanjutnya dilakukan analisa faktor dasar (baseline factor) untuk memahami penerapan REDD sebagai respon terjadinya degradasi hutan. Hasil analisa data MODIS 2003-2008 menunjukkan terjadinya kecenderungan perubahan penurunan luas hutan sebesar 23,5% (7.256.931 ha). Dari 23,5% tersebut, sekitar 70,0% (5.089.851,7 ha) berupa perubahan penurunan pada hutan alami dan sekitar
30,0% (2.167.079,3 ha) berupa penambahan hutan yang terkategori degradasi. Sebaliknya terjadi pula penambahan pada areal bukan hutan sekitar 30% (2.167.079,3 ha). Sementara analisa dengan data Landsat menunjukkan hasil kebalikan, yaitu selama periode 2003 – 2009 terjadi kenaikan jumlah hutan alami sebesar 3,5% (961.313 ha). Dari jumlah 3,5% tersebut, sebesar 7,8% (1.519.694 ha) berupa penambahan pada luasan hutan alami, dan berupa penurunan hutan terkategori degradasi sebesar 6,8% (558.381 ha) dan penurunan atas area bukan hutan sebesar 3,7% (961.313 ha). Adaptasi REDD pada masyarakat Kalimantan timur tersebar pada kelompok hutan terdegradasi (Patch, Perforated dan Edge). Kata Kunci: Hutan Tropis Basah, MODIS, Landsat, REDD, Hutan Terdegradasi

ABSTRACTS
This study used multi-temporal satellite Landsat imageries with 30-meter spatial
resolution period in 2003, 2006 and 2009 and MODIS data in 2003 and 2008 for detection of forest degradation in Kalimantan region, especially East Kalimantan. Detection of degradation level was done using change detection method and fragmentation analysis. Categories were determined by grouping of forest fragmentation by class of edge, perforated and patches, while natural forests in the forest cores were grouped on the buffer 250 to 500 acres. Further analysis was conducted on baseline factors to understand the application of REDD as a response to forest degradation. Analysis result of MODIS data in 2003-2008 shows a trend of decreased forest area by 23.5% (7,256,931 ha). Of 23.5%, approximately 70.0% (11,793,319 ha) were in the form of changes to a decrease in natural forest and approximately 30.0% (4,536,388 ha) of forests are categorized addition of degradation. In contrast, there were also addition to non-forest area of about 30% (7,252,525 ha). Meanwhile, Landsat data analysis shows the opposite result. For example, during the period 2003 – 2009 there was an increase of 3.5% (961,313 ha) of natural forests. Out of the total 3.5% of these, 7.8% (1,519,694 ha) were in the form of addition to the natural forest area, and a decrease in forest degradation as many as 6.8% (558,381 ha) and a decrease of nonforest area of 3.7% (961,313 ha). Adaptation of REDD in East Kalimantan communities scattered in groups of degraded forests (Patch, Perforated and Edge).

Keywords: Tropical Rain Forest, MODIS, Landsat, REDD, Degraded Forest


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