MORFODINAMIKA DELTA CIMANUK, JAWA BARAT BERDASARKAN ANALISIS CITRA LANDSAT

Tb. Solihuddin

Abstract


Delta Cimanuk merupakan delta dari sungai terpanjang kedua di Jawa Barat. Panjang aliran Sungai Cimanuk ± 250 km, hulunya berada di sekitar Kabupaten Garut melalui Kabupaten Sumedang dan Majalengka bermuara ke Laut Jawa di utara. Studi tentang morfodinamika Delta Cimanuk bertujuan untuk mengetahui dinamika dan evolusi Delta Cimanuk berdasarkan analisis citra landsat tahun 1991, 2001 dan 2007. Bentuk geometri Delta Cimanuk yang bertipe telapak kaki burung menunjukkan bahwa proses darat – laut lebih kuat dibandingkan dengan proses laut. Kajian morfologi menunjukkan perubahan menyolok pada lingkungan muara delta akibat pengikisan gelombang dan arus sejajar pantai. Analisis perubahan garis pantai menunjukkan proses abrasi di sekitar muara S. Cimanuk ± 56,25 m/tahun, muara S. Pancersong ± 25 m/tahun dan teluk Pancerpayang ± 12,5 m/tahun, sedangkan sedimentasi terjadi di teluk Pancersong ± 23,75 m/tahun. Proses erosi pantai mengakibatkan luas delta berkurang ± 1,6 ha/tahun. Penurunan pasokan sedimen S. Cimanuk banyak disebabkan oleh aktivitas manusia, seperti pembuatan sudetan pada badan sungai untuk menghindari banjir, juga pembuatan bendungan untuk keperluan pengairan sawah dan irigasi. Kata kunci : erosi, sedimentasi, morfodinamika delta, analisis citra Landsat.

ABSTRACT

Cimanuk Delta is a delta from the second longest river in West Java. The length of Cimanuk river is ± 250 km beginning at the Garut Regency through Sumedang and Majalengka going north to the Java Sea. The aim of this study is to investigate the dynamic and evolution of Cimanuk Delta based on landsat image analysis (acquisition year 1997, 2001 and 2007). Geometry of the Cimanuk Delta is a birdfoot-type delta, indicating that the fluvio-marine processes is stronger than marine processes. Morphology of the estuary environment of Cimanuk Delta has changed extremely because of wave and longshore current erosion. Coastline changes analysis indicate that erosion occurred during 1991–2007 at Cimanuk estuary with rate of ± 56,25 m/year, Pancersong estuary with rate of ± 25 m/year and Pancerpayang bay with rate of ± 12,5 m/year. Meanwhile, sedimentation occurred at Pancersong bay with rate of ± 23,75 m/year. The area of delta shows that retrogradation occurred about ± 1,6 ha/year. The degradation of sediment supply dominantly caused by human artificial. Canal and dam were built on Cimanuk River to avoid flood hazard and farm land watering and irrigation.

Keywords: erosion, sedimentation, delta morfodynamic, Landsat image analysis


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